What is radiation?

Radiation is a form of emission that changes the state of nuclei and atoms, transforming them into electrically charged ions and products of nuclear reaction. Different forms of radiation have different penetration ability, therefore they unequally affect our organism.

Alpha radiation is a stream of positively charged particles (nuclei of helium atoms), which move at the speed of about 20 000 km/sec. Alpha radiation is absorbed by a sheet of paper and it hardly penetrates the human's skin. But it is dangerous when particles get into the body through food, air or wounds. The range of alpha particles in the air is 11 cm, and in soft tissues - a few microns.

Beta radiation is a stream of negatively charged particles (electrons) with the speed close to the speed of light. Beta radiation can penetrate the human's skin at the depth of 1-2 centimeters, but everyday clothes are already an enough protection. Beta particles have different energy so their range in the air is not the same varying from a few meters to a centimeter.

Gamma radiation is a short-wave electromagnetic emission. Its properties are rather similar to those of X-rays, but it has far higher speed and energy, spreading with the speed of light. Gamma radiation has great penetration ability but can be weakened by walls of buildings and metal constructions.

In modern world, especially in industrial countries, in big towns many radioactive substances use in production, in chemical plants, in nuclear power stations. Usually radioactive waste products is bury. But not rarely happen damage in depository, under transportation. Often unfair businessman's save on utilization. Radioactive substances appear in earth, in air, in water. Next it come to food, building materials, drinking water.

Effects of radiation

Under the influence of ionizing radiation, atoms and molecules of living cells get ionized, which results in complicated physical and chemical processes that affect the nature of human's further vital activity.

There exists an opinion that ionization of atoms and molecules under the influence of radiation emission leads to breaking bonds in protein molecules, which results in cell death and irradiation of the whole body. However, there is a different opinion that radiolysis products of water, which is known to make up 70% of human body mass, take part in the formation of the biological consequences of ionizing emission. When water is ionized, free radicals H+ and OH- are formed, and, if oxygen is present, peroxide compounds, which are powerful oxidants, are formed as well. The latter enter into a chemical reaction with molecules of protein and enzyme, ruining them, and, as a result, compounds not native to living organisms are formed. This leads to violation of metabolism, oppression of enzyme and certain functioning systems, which means the violation of vital activity of the whole human body.

The peculiarity of ionizing radiation activity is that the intensity of chemical reactions caused by free radicals is growing, and hundreds and thousands of molecules which are not irradiated are involved.

It is also necessary to point out that some peculiarities of ionizing radiation effect on the human body:
  • sense organs do not respond to radiation;
  • small radiation doses can sum up and accumulate in the body (cumulative effect)
  • radiation affects not only the specific living organism, but also its prospective inheritance (genetic effect)
  • different organisms have different sensitivity to radiation.

The strongest effect is experienced by the cells of the red bone marrow, thyroid, lungs, and internal organs' that is the organs with the cells that have a high level of division. The same radiation dose affects more cells in children's organisms than in the adult ones as all the cells of children's bodies are in the state of division. The level of danger of different radioactive elements for a person is defined by the ability of the body to absorb and accumulate them.

Radioactive isotopes get inside the human body with dust, air, food or water, and can behave in many ways, e.g.:

  • be distributed evenly in the human body (tritium, carbon, iron, polonium)
  • be accumulated in bones (radium, phosphorus, strontium)
  • remain in muscles (potassium, rubidium, caesium)
  • accumulated in thyroid (iodine), liver, kidneys, spleen (ruthenium, polonium, niobium), etc.

The effects of ionizing radiation are classified according to kinds of damages and time of manifestation.

According to kinds of damages they are classified into three groups:

  • somatic
  • somatic-stochastic (casual, probable)
  • genetic

According to manifestation time, they are classified into two groups:

  • early (or acute)
  • late

Early radiation damage can only be somatic. It results in death or radiation sickness. The suppliers of such particles are mainly isotopes with a short lifetime. Acute form is a result of irradiation in large doses within the short period of time. Chronic form developes as a result of long irradiation. Beam cataracts, malignant tumours and other deseases might be the further consequences of radiation injury.

All of us surely want to prevent ourselves from radiation injury consequences. In order to do that we only need to be able to detect it. However, it is impossible to sense or see radiation. Here, a household personal dosimeter will help you avoid its destructive effect.

Examples of application

Most of our time is spent at home. Everyday life trifles, like kettle boiling, morning sun shining, coffee smelling, doorbell ringing etc. are common for our five senses. But what about gamma and beta radiation? It is not easily detected by our sense organs! Only a device that will function as an extra "sense" working "without rest" for 6000 hours will be able to help!
Every person needs a good rest after intensive work. The dosimeter with small dimensions easily fits in the knapsack pocket and will no doubt alarm about the "hot" place to avoid. Besides, it will always be a great help when you need to evaluate radiation contamination of farm products.
The dosimeter will ensure that your building site is radiation safe, and the building materials are not contaminated. Quite often radioactive materials contained in soil may also severely harm you and your children's health.
The dosimeter allows monitoring the contaminated food products you buy, as you may never know where they were planted and grown.
It may happen that somebody would want to harm your health. State-of-the-art technologies make it possible for your enemies to embody their schemes by setting articles containing radioactive elements into your everyday life, what will slowly but surely affect your health. The geiger counter will instantly detect such dangerous sources and alert you.

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DOSIMETER-RADIOMETER- RADIATION DETECTOR. NEW. MKS-05 "TERRA-P"- multifunctional radiometer-dosimeter. But notwithstanding small price,...

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DOSIMETER RADIOMETER RADIATION DETECTOR MKS-05 " TERRA-P + "- multifunctional radiometer-dosimeter- multifunctional radiometer-dosimeter....



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